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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19-24

Inhaled nitric oxide therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension of newborn: Eight-year experience of a level IIIB unit

Department of Neonatology, Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Femitha Pournami
Department of Neonatology, Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 029, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/arwy.arwy_57_21

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Background: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been in use for several decades now in neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Its requirement is uncommon, and is considered as an advanced form of support that is not widely available. Analysis of outcomes in specific settings, notably from low-middle income countries, is crucial. Objectives: To evaluate the patient profile and outcomes of neonates treated with iNO in our Level IIIB unit. Methods: This retrospective observational study describes the clinical diagnosis, management strategies and short-term outcomes of all neonates who received iNO in the years between 2013 and 2021. Details were retrieved from Electronic Medical Records and systematically analysed. Observation: Of 35 infants who received iNO during the study period, 31 (88.6%) were >34 weeks. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of oxygenation index at which iNO was started was 28 (20,33). The median (IQR) duration of iNO therapy was 48 (23,95) hours. Overall, 18 neonates (51.4%) survived till hospital discharge. Therapeutic response was best observed in infants with HRF secondary to meconium aspiration syndrome or congenital pneumonia (100% survival). Though the benefits of iNO use in congenital diaphragmatic hernia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with PH are debatable, its use continues as a rescue measure. Conclusion: iNO is used in severe HRF associated with PH in neonates and can improve survival rates in select patient profiles without any major adverse outcomes.

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