|LETTER TO EDITOR
|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 136-137
Anaesthetic management of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via vestibular approach
Sunil Rajan, Roniya Ann Roy, Niranjan Kumar Sasikumar, Jerry Paul
Department of Anaesthesiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
|Date of Submission||04-Aug-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||26-Aug-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||07-Oct-2022|
Dr. Sunil Rajan
Department of Anaesthesiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi - 682 041, Kerala
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Rajan S, Roy RA, Sasikumar NK, Paul J. Anaesthetic management of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via vestibular approach. Airway 2022;5:136-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Rajan S, Roy RA, Sasikumar NK, Paul J. Anaesthetic management of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via vestibular approach. Airway [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 8];5:136-7. Available from: https://www.arwy.org/text.asp?2022/5/3/136/358061
The recently described procedure of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via vestibular approach (TOETVA) permits thyroid surgery without a cutaneous scar. This technique is fast gaining popularity amongst patients and surgeons. During TOETVA, the surgery is done via small incisions on the inside of lower lip and is considered a safe technique.,,
A 23-year-old female with a solitary thyroid nodule was posted for TOETVA. She had no comorbidities. She was kept nil per oral and premedicated with alprazolam 0.25 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and metoclopramide 10 mg on the night before and on the day of surgery. In the operation theatre, electrocardiogram, noninvasive blood pressure and pulse oximetry monitoring were established, and the patient was preoxygenated. She was given midazolam 0.05 mg/kg, fentanyl 2 μg/kg and propofol 2 mg/kg slowly by intravenous (IV) route. After induction, atracurium 0.5 mg/kg was given IV and after 3 min, the patient was intubated nasally with a 7 mm ID ivory-cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT). The throat was packed with a moist roller gauze and the eyes were lubricated, taped and padded to avoid inadvertent trauma to the eyes. The patient was positioned supine with neck extended over a bolster placed below shoulders. Both arms were tucked in on either side. Anaesthesia was maintained with oxygen:air mixture (1:1) at 2 LPM flow and 1%–1.5% isoflurane, maintaining a minimum alveolar concentration at 1. Volume controlled ventilation with respiratory rate of 14/min, tidal volume 400 mL and peak end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O was used. Initially, the end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) ranged between 35 and 40 mm Hg.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) was insufflated intraoperatively through ports inserted via small incisions on the inside of lower lip to the surgical site [Figure 1]a at a pressure of 7 mm Hg and a flow rate of 10 LPM for the endoscopic procedure [Figure 1]b. About 30 min after CO2 insufflation, ETCO2 started to show a gradual increase to 45–50 mm Hg which was managed by increasing the respiratory rate to 18/min while maintaining the same tidal volume. The surgery lasted 3 h, and the intraoperative period was uneventful. Injection paracetamol 1 g was given 30 min before completion of surgery. At the end of surgery, the throat pack was removed, oral and ETT suctioning were done, residual neuromuscular blockade was antagonised with neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg and the patient was extubated when awake. The postoperative period was uneventful.
|Figure 1: Ports being inserted via small incisions on the inside of lower lip (a) and endoscopic procedure being performed (b)|
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The major anaesthetic requirements during TOETVA are nasal intubation and avoidance of patient movements intraoperatively. Although the surgery could be performed with oral intubation with ETT fixed near the angle of mouth, nasal intubation reduces chances of intraoperative tube compression and accidental extubation. The chances of hypercarbia during CO2 insufflation should be anticipated which can be easily managed by increasing the respiratory rate. Airway pressure required during ventilation for TOETVA is significantly lower than that required for laparoscopic surgeries. Although risks of vessel and nerve injuries are present, these are considered lesser than routine surgeries as the use of magnified stereoscopic visualisation allows more meticulous dissection and control of bleeding. Care should be taken to avoid hyperextension of the neck and pressure injury to the eyes. It is advisable to keep CO2 insufflation pressures to 6 mm Hg or less to avoid problems related to reduced venous drainage, CO2 embolism and subcutaneous emphysema.
During TOETVA, providing general anaesthesia through a nasal ETT with constant monitoring of patient's position, respiratory and haemodynamic changes ensures optimal patient outcome.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given her consent for her images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that her name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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